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Such a rule would narrowly target the styling to content contained therein and ignore the vertical menu altogether. Many designers resort to images to add graphical lair when code-based techniques can be problematic.

But large images can consume too much Internet bandwidth and make pages slow to load and respond. In some cases, a strategically designed small image can be used to create interesting 3D shapes and efects. In this exercise, you will learn how to create a three-dimensional efect with the help of a tiny image graphic and the CSS background property.

Click the Browse button next to the Background-image ield. Observe the image dimensions and preview. Notice the lighter shade of green at the top of the graphic. Since the page is pixels wide, you know that this graphic could never ill the horizontal menu unless it were copied and pasted hundreds of times.

Some graphics, with shading, like background. CSS allows you to control the repeat to ill the entire element as necessary. Note that function and limit it to either the vertical or horizontal axis. Choose repeat-x from the Background-repeat ield menu.

Creating descendant selectors he predeined style sheet declares a rule for multiple elements that will afect all h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, and p tags no matter where they appear on the page. But if you want to target a style at a speciic tag within a speciic element, it requires a descendant selector.

Dreamweaver makes it easy to create such rules. Note the names and order of the tag selectors at the bottom of the document window. As described earlier in this chapter, when creating new rules take care about where they appear in the style sheet.

Rules at the top of the sheet can pass formatting to rules appearing later using inheritance or cancel settings because of higher speciicity. Inserting a rule in the wrong place could cause the browsers to ignore it altogether. P Note: When the cursor is inserted into Because you selected the. If the Compound compound selector selector type is not displayed, choose it from the Selector Type menu.

Typically, when the cursor is inserted not displayed when the into page content, the dialog box defaults to the Compound selector type and dialog box irst appears. Whenever possible, rules should be simpliied to reduce the total amount of code that needs to be downloaded. Enter 5px in the Bottom margin ield.

Note that the new rule was inserted directly after the. Dreamweaver makes it easy to apply classes. Make sure the cursor is lashing in the element and that no text is selected.

P Note: You may need to refresh the page display to see the updated tag selector. When the cursor is inserted in an existing element, Dreamweaver assumes you want to apply the class to the entire element. Choose green from the Class menu in the Property inspector. Now remove the class. Insert the cursor anywhere in the formatted text. When the cursor is inserted in Design or Code view. Creating custom IDs he CSS id attribute is given the highest speciic weight in CSS styling because it is used to identify unique content on a webpage and therefore should trump all other styling.

Right-click the selector name and choose Edit Selector from the context menu. Note the ID displayed in the Property inspector. Note that the menu has two apparent options: apDiv1 and logo. You can demonstrate this functionality with a simple test.

You see this diference as soon as you insert an AP div into a document: Dreamweaver creates a rule for it automatically and assigns it attributes for width, height, position, and z-index, and it then displays these speciications in the Property inspector. In fact, the special treatment persists even after the rule is created.

If you change the id attribute of the AP div in the Property inspector, Dreamweaver will update the name of the rule in the CSS Styles panel at the same time. However, the reverse is not true. If you change the rule name using the style sheet as you did in this lesson , Dreamweaver does not change the ID on the element itself.

The program leaves this chore up to you. What happened to apDiv1? Additionally, as each ID stored in the style sheet is used in your layout, Dreamweaver interactively removes it from the menu to prevent you from accidentally using it a second time.

Many designers create these attributes irst and then deine them later, or use them to diferentiate speciic page structures, or to create hyperlink destinations. Some class and id attributes may never appear in the style sheets or pop-up menus.

Examine the available class attributes. Note that all class attributes are available. You should now know some of the diferences between classes and IDs, as well as how to create, edit, and assign them to elements on your page.

Creating an interactive menu By combining descendant selectors, classes, and IDs, you can produce amazing behaviors from seemingly static elements. Videos, Flash animation, and JavaScript behaviors will all perform as they would on the Internet. Observe the behavior and appearance of the menu items.

P Note: Rollover refers As the mouse moves over each button, the cursor icon changes to the hand back to the time when pointer, indicating that the menu items are formatted as hyperlinks. Observe the behavior and appearance of the menu items, if any. Do not select the spaces on either making changes to your side of the word or the vertical bars, or pipes, that separate the words.

If Adding a hash mark in the Link ield creates a hyperlink placeholder and desired, you can change will allow you to create and test the necessary formatting for the horizontal both the content and navigation menu without having to create an actual link.

Note that the text now styling using the Code displays the formatting of a typical text hyperlink. Be sure to select both words in each item before applying the placeholder. Watch for any undesirable side efects. The a:link pseudoclass in many cases is interchangeable with the a selector in CSS rules.

However, as you already experienced earlier, a:link is more speciic and may override speciications assigned to the less speciic a selector if both are used in the style sheet. This speciication is reset whenever the browser cache or history is deleted. When used, the pseudoclasses must be declared in the order as listed above to be efective.

Remember, whether declared in the style sheet or not, each state has a set of default formats and behaviors. When a link has been used, it usually changes color, indicating that you visited that destination earlier.

However, in the vertical and horizontal menus, we do not want the links to change their appearance after you click them. To prevent or reset this behavior, you can create a compound rule that will format both states of the link at once. Type :link to add it at the end of the selector name. Type a comma , and press the spacebar to insert a space. By combining these two selectors into one rule, you are formatting the default properties of both hyperlink states at once. Position the cursor over the hyperlink placeholders in the horizontal menu.

But these hyperlinks have none of the lair of the vertical menu, with its changing background color. As explained, that interactive behavior is controlled by the pseudoclass a:hover. Save the ile. Select the nav p a:link, state inherits much of its formatting from a nav p a:visited rule in the CSS Styles panel. In most he New CSS Rule dialog box appears with the Compound selector type cases, you only need to declare values for displayed and the text.

Edit the Selector Name to say nav p a:hover, nav p a:active, and click OK. You can create a more interesting efect by add space outside the adding a little padding to the element. Double-click the nav p a:hover, nav p a:active rule to edit it.

Luckily, the solution to this problem is quite simple. Have you igured out what you need to do? It can be used to delete a rule property or the entire rule, depending on how it is invoked. Before using it, note the tooltip that appears when the cursor hovers over it. When the mouse moves over the links, the background color extends ive pixels around the link without shifting.

Do you understand why you added the padding to the default hyperlink? By adding padding to the default state, the hover state automatically inherits the extra padding and allows the background color to work as desired, without shifting the text.

To be consistent, the colors used in the site should adhere to the overall site theme. Since you know that the hover state is responsible for creating the interactive link behavior, it should be a simple matter to change the background color in the vertical menu.

Observe the names and the order of elements in the tag selector display. Is there an a:hover pseudoclass associated with it? In the Background category, change the background color to By applying diferent colors to each border, you can give the but- tons a 3D appearance. As in the previous exercise, you irst need to locate the rules formatting the elements.

Observe the attributes displayed in the Properties section of the panel. Enter solid, 1px, in the Right border ields. Enter solid, 1px, in the Bottom border ields. Enter solid, 1px, 0C0 in the Left border ields. Before After By adding lighter colors to the top and left and darker colors to the right and bottom, you have created a subtle but efective three-dimensional efect.

Creating faux columns Although multicolumn designs are very popular on the web, HTML and CSS have no built-in commands to produce true column structures in a webpage. Instead, columnar designs—like the one used in the Dreamweaver CSS layouts—are simu- lated by using several types of HTML elements and various formatting techniques, usually combining margins and the loat attribute. HTML5 and CSS3 can display text in multiple columns, but for the time being, the page layouts themselves will still depend on the older techniques.

Unfortunately, these methods have their limitations and downsides. For example, one of the problems with the layout used in this lesson is getting both columns to display at the same height. Either one column or the other will almost always be shorter. Since the sidebar has a background color, there will be a visible gap at the bottom as content is added to the main page.

Many designers sidestep the issue alto- gether simply by refusing to use background colors. Instead, you will create the efect of a full-height sidebar column by using a back- ground graphic combined with the CSS repeat function. Examine the tag selector display.

Examine its properties. In the Background category, click the Browse button. Select divider. Right-click the button and choose Code Navigator from the context menu. Chances are a margin setting is producing the spacing efect. Select the bottom-margin setting in the Properties section. It makes the process of testing and uploading quick and simple.

But an internal style sheet can style only one page. An external style sheet can be linked to any number of pages and, for most web applications, is the normal and preferred worklow. Dreamweaver provides the means to handle that task quickly and easily. Hold the Shift key P Note: The last style and select the last style. You could also right-click the selected area to access the Move CSS Rules option from the context menu.

Click Save. Note at the top of the document window that Dreamweaver now displays the name of the external style sheet in the Related Files interface. More than one style and referenced that have been changed are sheet can be linked to a page.

By creating and attaching style sheets optimized for not automatically saved. For example, the style sheet created and applied in the previous exercises was designed for a typical computer display. Print style sheets often adjust colors to work better for laser and inkjet printers, hide unneeded page elements, or adjust page sizes and layouts to be more suitable for printing.

When the print queue is activated, the printing application checks for a print- media style sheet. If one is present, the relevant CSS rules are taken into account. Displaying the style rendering toolbar If no media-type attribute appears in a style sheet, the browser or web applica- tion assumes that the CSS styles are intended for screen display.

However, you have the ability to switch what media type is rendered in Design view by using the Style Rendering toolbar. Leave it visible for the next exercise. Make sure the site root folder is targeted.

From the Media ield menu, choose print. At the moment, both style sheets are identical. You will modify the print style sheet in the next exercise. Using the print- media style sheet, you can hide unwanted portions of a page.

Before you can hide these menus, we need to create a new rule. Delete repeat-y from the Background-repeat ield. Deleting the image reference is not enough. Click the Live view button. Although the Style Rendering toolbar is set to Print, Dreamweaver ignores the print-media styles and renders the page for the screen. To properly test the page, you have to use the print preview function in an actual browser.

P Note: Some 15 Once the page has loaded in the browser, activate print preview. Always test printing the butterly logo and the page borders. In the Border category, what other styles you if necessary, select the Same For All option in the Style section. Choose none need to modify for from the Top Style ield. You should know enough now to keep the butterly logo from printing, too.

Take a few minutes here and see if you can do it. Whenever you can remove unneeded code from your pages, you should do so. It reduces ile size and allows the pages to download and respond more quickly. You can delete unneeded styles using the CSS Styles panel. Click Yes to delete multiple rules. In fact, you can remove all the rules that format hyperlink behavior.

After deleting any rules, make sure you test the page in the browser and in the print application. Observe the screen display in Design view. Dreamweaver renders the document for the web. Dreamweaver renders the screen using the print style sheet. You have adapted a screen-media style sheet to render a webpage more appropriately in print.

You have completed the basic design of the page that will be used as the project template, and you have adapted it to print media. In the next lesson, you will learn how to convert this layout into a dynamic web template. Observe the design and structure of this page. Note the mouse icon Dreamweaver displays. Type Get a fresh start with GreenStart to replace the text. Select your default browser.

For all intents and purposes, a template-based page is just a normal HTML ile. Creating a template from an existing layout A template is a type of master page from which related child pages are produced. Templates are useful for setting up and maintaining the overall look and feel of a website, while providing a means for quickly and easily producing site content. A template is diferent from the pages you have already completed; it contains areas that are editable and other areas that are not.

Templates enable a workgroup environment where page content can be created and edited by several people on the team, while the web designer is able to control the page design and speciic ele- ments that must remain unchanged.

Or, if you are starting from scratch in this exercise, in the lesson06 folder. Because of their special nature, templates are stored in their own folder, Templates, which Dreamweaver automatically creates at the site root level.

Leave the Description ield empty. If you have more than one ilename, like adding template in a site, a description may be useful. P Note: A dialog box may appear asking about saving the ile without deining editable regions; just click Yes to save anyway.

An untitled dialog box appears asking whether you want to update links. Since the template is saved in a subfolder, updating the links in the code is neces- sary so that they will continue to work properly when you create child pages later. Although the page still looks exactly the same, you can identify a template in two ways.

Second, the ile extension is. A template is dynamic, meaning that Dreamweaver maintains a connection to all pages within the site that are derived from it.

Whenever you add or change content within the dynamic regions of the page and save it, Dreamweaver passes those changes to all the child pages automatically, keeping them up to date. Some sections of the page should contain areas where you can insert unique content. Dreamweaver allows you to designate these areas of the page as editable. Inserting editable regions When you irst create a template, Dreamweaver treats all the existing content as part of the master design. Child pages created from the template would be exact duplicates, except that the content would be locked and uneditable.

You get around this barrier by deining editable regions in the template. First, give some thought to which areas of the page should be part of the template and which should be open for editing. Each editable region must have a unique name, but there are no other special conventions. However, keeping them short and descriptive is a good practice. In Design view, you will see the name in a blue tab above the designated area, identifying it as an editable region.

It contains an P Note: If you are image placeholder and caption that you can customize on each page. But it also building this template using an alternative includes the vertical menu, which will hold the main navigation links for the HTML 4 layout site. Adding a title to each page is a good practice. Each title should relect the speciic content or purpose of the page. But many designers also append the name of the company or organization to help build more corporate or organizational awareness.

Adding the name in the template will save time typing it in each child page later. P Note: The Update You now have two editable regions, plus an editable title that can be changed as Template Pages dialog needed when you create new child pages using this template. Since there are no template child pages made from this template. Once a child page has open a template in a been created from a template, only the content within the editable regions can be text editor, all the code modiied in the child page.

If you editable regions of the open the page in a text editor, like Notepad or TextEdit, the code is fully editable. Dreamweaver creates a new page based on the template. Note the name of the template ile displayed in the upper-right corner of the document window. Before modifying the page, you should save it. In the Save As dialog box, navigate to the root folder for your project site. Certain areas, such as the header, menu bar, and footer, are locked and cannot be modiied.

Type About Meridien GreenStart to replace the text. Type GreenStart — green awareness in action! Select the placeholder text Insert content here in the MainContent region. In the Select Image Source dialog box, select shopping. But only areas outside the editable regions will be updated.

Typically, it is grouped with the Files panel. Click the refresh icon if no templates appear in the list. Type GreenStart Home to replace the text. Type Headlines to replace the text. Select the Show Log option at the bottom of the dialog box to display a report detailing which pages were successfully updated and which ones were not. Observe the page and note any changes. At the same time, the boilerplate elements of the header, footer, and horizontal menu all remain consistently formatted and up to date based on the status of the template.

Dreamweaver even updates linked documents that are open at the time. If Dreamweaver or your computer were to crash at this moment, the changes would be lost and you would have to update the page manually or wait until the next time you make changes to the template to take advantage of the automatic update feature.

Library items are reusable bits of HTML—paragraphs, links, copyright notices, tables, images, navigation bars, and so on—that you use frequently but not on every page within a website and therefore would not necessarily include in the site template. You can use existing page elements or create original library items from scratch and add copies of them where needed. A library item is a like a template, only on a small scale.

As with templates, when you make and save changes to a library item, Dreamweaver automatically updates every page that uses that item.

In fact, they are so similar in behavior that some worklows may favor library items over templates altogether. Or, you could implement common page elements using library items. No items appear in the library for this lesson. A dialog box appears explaining that the library item may not look the same when placed in other documents because style sheet information is not included.

Type vertical-nav in the Library Item Name ield. First, to be uploaded to the it creates a library item from the selected menu code and inserts an Untitled server. Second, it replaces the existing menu with the library item code. And third, it creates a folder called Library at the site root level to store this and other items. Working with library items is similar to using a template. You insert the library item on each page as desired and then update the items as needed.

Position the cursor over the vertical menu. Observe the menu display. Switch to Code view. Insert your cursor in the selected code. P Note: A dialog box may appear at any time in this or the next two steps warning you that the changes you made will be discarded the next time you update the page from the template.

Select a browser from the list. Dreamweaver is keeping track of the library item and your edits, intentional or otherwise. As you will see shortly, the change you made will be short-lived. Finally, a dialog appears warning you that you have made changes to code that was locked. It further explains that the original code will be restored the next time you update the template or library item. P Note: The manual change to the library item will remain in the menu for the time being.

Save all changes. Dreamweaver updates any pages in the site that use the library item and reports the results of the process. At least one page should be updated. Library items allow you to insert repeatable content throughout the site and update it without having to open the iles individually. The latest news and especially the best tutorials on your favorite topics, that is why Computer PDF is number 1 for courses and tutorials for download in pdf files – Adobe Dreamweaver CS6 Tutorial.

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Adobe Dreamweaver CS6 Tutorial. Size : Getting Started with Dreamweaver CS6. Size : 1. Coder workspace he Designer workspace provides the optimum environment for visual designers. You will explore the capabilities of these toolbars in later exercises. You can store these conigura- tions in a custom workspace of your own naming.

To save a custom workspace, create your desired coniguration, choose New Workspace from the Workspace menu in the Application bar, and then give it a custom name. Keyboard shortcuts are loaded and preserved independent of custom workspaces. Create it yourself. Click OK. Note that the Save All command does not have an existing shortcut, although you will use this command frequently in Dreamweaver. Note the error message indicating that the keyboard combination you chose is already assigned to a command.

You have created your own keyboard shortcut—one you will use in upcoming lessons. When the HTML button is selected, you can apply heading or paragraph tags, as well as bold, italics, bullets, numbers, and indenting, among other formatting and attributes. CSS Property inspector Image properties Select an image in a webpage to access the image-based attributes and formatting control of the Property inspector. Image Property inspector table properties To access table properties, insert your cursor in a table and then click the table tag selector at the bottom of the document window.

It is the structure and substance of the Internet, although it is usually unseen except by the web designer. Without it, the web would not exist. Dreamweaver has many features that help you access, create, and edit HTML code quickly and efectively.

Most people confuse the program with the technology. Print designers are used to working with iles ending with. Designers have learned over time that opening these ile formats in a diferent program may produce unacceptable results or even damage the ile.

On the other hand, the goal of the web designer is to create a webpage for display in a browser. In fact, it is a nonproprietary, plain-text language that can be edited in any text editor, in any operating system, and on any computer.

Dreamweaver is an HTML editor at its core, although it is much more than this. Where did htmL begin? He intended the technology as a means for sharing technical papers and information via the ledgling Internet that existed at the time. He shared his HTML and browser inventions openly as an attempt to get the scien- tiic community and others to adopt it and engage in the development themselves. At the time of this writing, HTML is at version 4.

It consists of around 90 tags, such as html, head, body, h1, p, and so on. When two matching tags appear this way, they are referred to as an element. Some elements are used to create page structures, others to format text, and yet others to enable interactivity and programmability. Even though Dreamweaver obviates the need for writing most of the code manually, the ability to read and interpret HTML code is still a recommended skill for any burgeoning web designer.

And sometimes, writing the code by hand is the only way to ind an error in your webpage. Tags are enclosed within angle brackets. Empty tags, like the horizontal rule, can be written in an abbreviated fashion, as shown above. Like an iceberg, most of the content of the actual webpage remains out of sight. Navigate to the desktop, select irstpage.

Congratulations, you just created your irst webpage. Finish by typing and easy! In fact, you could add hundreds of paragraph returns between the lines and dozens of spaces between each word, and the browser display would be no diferent. By inserting a tag here and there, you can easily create the desired text display.

Entities are entered into the code using the standard diferently than tags. For example, the method for inserting a nonbreaking key keyboard. Switch to the browser and reload or refresh the page display. Because the tags and entities were added, the browser can display the desired paragraph structure and spacing. Besides creating paragraph structures and creating white space as demonstrated earlier, they can impart basic text formatting, as well as identify the relative importance of the page content.

Heading tags are automatically formatted in bold and often at a larger relative size. In this exercise, you will add a heading tag to the irst line: 1 Switch back to the text editor. Note how the text changed. It is now larger and formatted in boldface. Web designers use heading tags to identify the importance of speciic content and to help improve their site rankings on Google, Yahoo, and other search engines.

A typical use of inline code would be to apply bold or italic styling to a word or to a portion of a paragraph. In this exercise, you will apply inline formatting: 1 Switch back to the text editor. Notice how 3 Save the ile. A webpage can exist without this section, but adding any advanced functionality to this page without one would be diicult.

Did you notice what changed? It may not be obvious at irst. Look at the title bar of the browser window. A well-titled page could be ranked higher than one with a bad title or one with none at all.

Keep your titles short but meaningful. Click Create. A new document window opens in Dreamweaver. Dreamweaver makes it a simple matter to format the irst line as a heading 1. Note how Dreamweaver automatically opens a drop-down list of compatible code elements. Tired of hand-coding yet? Dreamweaver ofers multiple ways to format your content. When you reached for the B and I buttons in step 14, were they missing? When you make changes in Code view, the Property inspector occasionally needs to be refreshed before you can access the formatting commands featured there.

Simply click the Refresh button, and the formatting commands will reappear. Only two more tasks remain before your new page is complete. You could select the text within the code window and enter a new title, or you could change it using another built-in feature.

Note that the new title text appears in the code, replacing the original content. Navigate to the desktop. Name the ile secondpage, and click Save. Dreamweaver adds the proper extension. You have just completed two webpages—one by hand and the other using Dreamweaver. In both cases, you can see how HTML played a central role in the whole process.

To learn more about this technology, go to www. Tags can create structures, apply formatting, identify logical content, or generate interactivity. Tags that create stand-alone structures are called block elements; the ones that perform their work within the body of another tag are called inline elements. To get the most out of Dreamweaver and your webpages, it helps to understand the nature of these elements and how they are used. Remember, some tags can serve multiple purposes. Table 2. Creates a hyperlink.

Used extensively to simulate columnar layouts. Adds semantic emphasis. Creates bold headings. Defines a numbered list. Creates a stand-alone paragraph. Displays as bold by default. Designates a table cell. Defines a bulleted list. So, what does that mean for current or up-and-coming web designers? Not much—yet. Websites and their developers change and adapt to current technologies and market realities quickly, but the underlying technologies progress at a more glacial pace.

Browser manufacturers are already supporting many of the new features of HTML5 today. Early adopters will attract developers and users who are interested in the latest and greatest, which means that older, non-HTML5-compliant brows- ers will be abandoned as these new features are implemented in the majority of popular websites. In any case, backward-compatibility to HTML 4.

HTML 4. Some of these elements have been deprecated or removed altogether, and new ones have been adopted or proposed.

Many of the changes to the list revolve around supporting new technologies or dif- ferent types of content models. Some changes simply relect customs or techniques that have been popularized within the developer community since the previous version of HTML was adopted. Other changes simplify the way code is created and make it easier to write and faster to disseminate. Almost 30 old tags have been deprecated, which means HTML5 features nearly 50 new elements in total.

Take a few moments to familiarize yourself with these tags and their descriptions. Multiple sources can be defined for browsers that do not support the default resource. It is a move- ment that has important ramiications for the future and usability of HTML and for the interoperability of websites on the Internet. At the moment, each webpage stands alone on the web. Search engines do their best to index the content that appears on every site, but much of it is lost because of the nature and structure of old HTML code.

HTML was initially designed as a presentation language. In other words, it was intended to display technical documents in a browser in a readable and predict- able manner. Was it a title or merely a subheading? HTML5 has added a signiicant number of new tags to help us add meaning to our markup. If you are new to web design, this transition will be painless, because you have nothing to relearn and no bad habits to break.

If you already have experience building webpages and applications, this book will guide you safely through some of these waters and introduce the new technologies and techniques in a logical and straightforward way.

Valid HTML 4 code will remain valid for the foreseeable future. HTML5 was intended to make your task easier by allowing you to do more, with less work. To see the complete list of HTML5 elements, check out www. To learn more about W3C, check out www. An inline element can exist within another element. The language and syntax is complex, powerful, and end- lessly adaptable; it takes time and dedication to learn and years to master.

HTML was never intended to be a design medium. Other than bold and italic, version 1. Designers resorted to various tricks to produce the desired results. For example, they used HTML tables to simu- late multicolumn and complex layouts for text and graphics, and they used images when they wanted to display typefaces other than Times or Helvetica.

Using the expanded table mode in Dreamweaver top , you can see how this webpage relies on tables and images to produce the inal design bottom.

Using CSS lets you strip the HTML code down to its essential content and structure and then apply the formatting separately, so you can more easily tailor the webpage to spe- ciic applications. Click in the Design view window to update the display. Make a mistake, like typing greeen or geen, and the browser will ignore the color formatting altogether. Note that the code contains two color: blue; attributes.

In Design view, all the heading elements display in green. In Design view, the paragraph elements have changed to green.

So even if you do nothing, the text will already be formatted in a certain way. One of the essential tasks in mastering CSS is learning and understanding these defaults. If necessary, select Design view to preview the contents of the ile. Each element exhibits basic styling for traits such as size, font, and spacing, among others. A quick look will tell you that there is no obvious styling information in the ile, but the text still displays diferent kinds of formatting.

So where does it come from? And what are the settings? HTML elements draw characteristics from multiple sources. You can ind a default style sheet at www. To save time and give you a bit of a head start, the following table pulls together some of the most common defaults. Body text Outside of a table cell, text aligns to the left and starts at the top of the page. This default is not honored by all browsers. Fonts Text color is black. Default typeface and font is specified and supplied by the browser or by browser preferences specified by the manufacturer and then by the user.

Margins Spacing external to the element box. Many HTML elements feature some form of margin spacing. Padding Spacing between the box border and the content. According to the default style sheet, no element features default padding. Unfortunately, even diferent versions identify the browsers that visitors in your of the same browser can produce wide target audience use.

IE Other 0. In January , the W3C published statistics, shown in the image above, identifying the most popular browsers. Although this chart shows the basic breakdown in the browser world, it obscures the fact that multiple versions of each browser are still being used.

To make matters more complicated, although these statistics are valid for the Internet overall, the statistics for your own site may vary wildly. Css box model he browser normally reads the HTML code, interprets its structure and format- ting, and then displays the webpage. It imposes an imaginary box around each element and then enables you to format almost every aspect of how that box and its contents are displayed.

The box model is a programmatic construct imposed by CSS that enables you to format, or redeine, the default settings of any HTML element. In most instances these boxes are invisible, and although CSS gives you the ability to format them, it does not require you to do so.

Open boxmodel. Content vs. Here is identical HTML content, side by side. Formatting text You can apply CSS formatting in three ways: inline, embedded in an internal style sheet , or linked via an external style sheet. A CSS formatting instruction is called a rule. A rule consists of two parts—a selector and one or more declarations.

Applying a CSS rule is not a simple matter of selecting some text and applying a paragraph or character style, as in Adobe InDesign or Adobe Illustrator. CSS rules can afect single words, paragraphs of text, or combinations of text and objects. A single rule can afect an entire page. A rule can be speciied to begin and end abruptly, or to format content continuously until changed by a subsequent rule. The way the selector is written HTML element determines how the styling is applied and Multiple how the rules interact with one another.

Cascade theory he cascade theory describes how the order and placement of rules in the style sheet or on the page afects the application of styling. In other words, if two rules conlict, which one wins out? Note that the code contains two CSS rules that are identical except that they apply diferent colors: red or blue. Both rules want to format the same elements, but only one will be honored.

Obviously, the second rule won. Because the second rule is the last one declared, which makes it the closest one to the actual content. You have switched the order of the rules. Both proximity and the order in which rules appear within the markup are powerful factors in how CSS is applied. When you try to determine which CSS rule will be honored and which formatting will be applied, browsers typically use the following order of hierarchy, with 3 being the most powerful.

Browser defaults. If both are present, the one declared last supersedes the earlier entry in conlicts. Inline styles within the HTML element itself. Inheritance theory he inheritance theory describes how one rule can be afected by one or more pre- viously declared rules. Inheritance can afect rules of the same name as well as rules that format parent elements or elements that nest one inside another. In Split view, observe the CSS code.

In other words, since both rules do something diferent, both will be honored. Far from being a mistake or an unintended consequence, the ability to build rich and elaborate formatting using multiple rules is one of the most powerful and complex aspects of cascading style sheets. Redundant code should be avoided whenever possible. It adds to the size of the code as well as to the time it takes to download and process it.

By using inheritance, you can create the same efect with a single rule. All the elements remain formatted as blue Verdana. One rule is now formatting three diferent elements. You may have also noticed that the two h1 rules combined create the same styling applied by the new div rule.

Click in the Design view window to refresh the display; it should look exactly the same. Descendant theory he descendant theory describes how formatting can target a particular element based on its position relative to other elements. By constructing a selector using multiple elements, in addition to ID and class attributes, you can target the format- ting to speciic instances of text as it appears within your webpage. Click in the Design view window to refresh the display.

What happened to blue Verdana? Just move the element into the proper structure or location within the code, and it formats itself. Some refer to this as weight—giving certain rules more priority based on order, proximity, inheritance, and descendant relationships. But, at the moment, none of the rules is actually formatting the text. In Dreamweaver, commented code usually appears grayed out. But before you do this, can you determine—based on the syntax and order of the rules—what formatting will apply to the sample text?

For example, will the text appear in Times, Impact, or Verdana? Will it be blue, red, green, or orange? So, then why does the text display in the typeface Verdana? As mentioned earlier, CSS rules may style more than one HTML element at a time, and some rules may overlap or inherit styling from one another.

Can you determine which one? Can you explain why? Each of the theories described here has a role to play in how CSS styling is applied through your webpage and across your site. When the style sheet is loaded, the browser will use the following hierarchy—with number 4 being the most powerful—to determine how the styles are applied, especially when rules conlict: 1.

Cascade 2. Inheritance 3. Descendant structure 4. In such cases, Dreamweaver comes to the rescue with a fantastic feature named Code Navigator. When activated, it will display all the CSS rules that have some role in formatting an ele- ment, and it will list the order of their cascade application and speciicity. In an actual webpage, the possibility of styling conlicts grows with each new rule added. A small window appears, displaying a list of three CSS rules that apply to this heading.

When rules conlict, rules farther down in the list override rules that are higher up. Remember, elements may inherit styling from one or more rules, and default styling may be overridden by more-speciic settings. But many factors can inluence which of the rules may win. As you saw earlier, changing the order of rules can often afect how the rules work.

Activate the Code Navigator. Although the rule was moved to the top of the style sheet, the display of rules did not change, because the div. In this instance, it would win no matter where it was placed in the code, but its speciicity can easily be changed by modifying the selector. Did you notice how the styling changed? But, since this rule is the last one declared in the code, it now takes precedence in the cascade.

Is it starting to make more sense? Until that time, just remember that the rule that appears last in the Code Navigator has the most inluence on any particular element. By default, all elements start at the top of the browser screen and appear consecu- tively one after the other from left to right, top to bottom. Block elements generate their own line or paragraph breaks; inline elements appear at the point of insertion. CSS can break all of these default constraints and let you size, format, and position elements almost any way you want them.

CSS can control both the width and the height of an element, with varying degrees of success. All speciications can be expressed in relative terms percentages, ems, or exs or in absolute terms pixels, inches, points, centimeters, and so on. By default, block elements occupy percent of the width of the browser window. Otherwise, CSS can deine element mea- surements in absolute or relative terms. Box 1 is unformatted to demonstrate how block elements display by default.

Relative measurements allow the elements to automati- cally adapt to changes to the width of the browser.

For example, if you were to drag the divider between the Code view and Design view windows left or right, Box 2 would always display at half the width of the Design view window. Element widths set to percentages will adapt automatically to changes in the browser window, maintaining their relative dimen- sion within the space.

Box 3 is formatted to a ixed measurement of pixels. It will maintain this width no matter what happens to the size of the browser screen. It is formatted to a width of 10 ems. In other words, use a large font and the em gets big- ger; use a small font and the em gets smaller. It even changes based on whether the font is a condensed or expanded face. Widths speciied in ems allow your page ele- ments to adapt to user requests for increases or decreases in font size.

Unfortunately, the reality is not so simple. Past browser support for the height property was not consistent or reliable. But measurements in percentages require a small workaround, or hack, to make most browsers honor them. Box 1 demonstrates the default behavior of block elements; it takes up only as much height as the content contained within it requires. Box 2 is set to a height of pixels; it will remain at this ixed height regardless of changes to the screen size or orientation.

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